Второстепенные члены предложения (THE SECONDARY PARTS OF THE SENTENCE)
Дополнение (The Object)
В английском языке есть следующие типы приложений:
а) прямой (the Direct Object); употребляется без предлога и, обычно стоит после сказуемого.
Прямое дополнение обозначает лицо или предмет, на которые направлено действие, выраженное глаголом-сказуемым. Выражается, в основном, существительным в общем падеже или местоимением в объектном падеже и отвечает на вопрос “кого?”, “что?”.
When Peter came in he locked the door.
I saw him yesterday.
My father received a letter from his old friend. He invites us to visit him.
I remember reading about African countries last year.
The teacher likes to recite poems by Shevchenko before his pupils.
б) косвенный (the Indirect Object)
Косвенное дополнение обозначает лицо, к которому обращено действие, выраженное глаголом-сказуемым, и отвечает на вопрос “кому?”:
My friend lent то the book which he had bought long ago.
The teacher gave the pupils a very interesting book.
I gave my son some money and asked him to buy a present for his sister.
в) косвенный предложный (the Indirect Prepositional Object)
Косвенный предложный приложение может быть выражен существительным, местоимением или другой частью речи с предлогом.
Не gave the books to me, not to Oleh.
The picture was very nice, and we looked at it for a long time.
They spoke about the town where their mother was bom.
Ann lives with her family.
г) сложное дополнение (the Complex Object) состоит из существительного или местоимения и инфинитива, Герундия или причастия, обозначающие действие, которое выполняют ли претерпят лицо или предмет, обозначенный существительным или местоимением:
I want you to clean the room.
We saw him crossing the road.
Обстоятельства (The Adverbial Modifiers)
По значению обстоятельства бывают:
а) обстоятельство места (the Adverbial Modifier of Place):
The newspaper “Arguments and Facts ” is published in Kyiv.
They live here.
We study at the university.
б) обстоятельство времени (the Adverbial Modifier of Time):
The tourists will start their journey in the morning.
They arrived in Kyiv two days ago.
We shall have our vacation in a month.
в) обстоятельство образа действия (the Adverbial Modifier of Manner):
The pupils listened to their teacher attentively.
Horses can run quickly.
He did his exercises with great care.
г) обстоятельство причти (the Adverbial Modifier of Cause):
It was nasty because of the bad weather.
He got very tired, having worked all day.
She shivered with cold.
г) обстоятельство цели (the Adverbial Modifier of Purpose):
Many people go to Kyiv to see its places of interest.
The youth ввод higher schools to get professional education.
He came to the library to read some newspapers.
д) обстоятельство сопроводительных действий (the Adverbial Modifier of Attending Circumstances):
Now I can go to bed at last without dreading tomorrow. (Shaw)
е) обстоятельство степени и меры (the Adverbial Modifier of Degi-ee and Measure):
It is rather strange.
It weighs a kilo.
есть) обстоятельство допустовості (the Adverbial Modifier of Concession):
In spite of the nasty weather we went to the forest.
ж) обстоятельство следствия (the Adverbial Modifier of Result):
She was too busy to hear me.
с) обстоятельство условия (the Adverbial Modifier of Condition):
But for his help, I couldn't manage to do it.
ы) обстоятельство частоты (the Adverbial Modifier of Frequency):
She often visited me in summer.
и) обстоятельство сравнения (the Adverbial Modifier of Comparison):
She was crying like a child.
Определение (The Attribute)
Определением может быть:
а) прилагательное (the Adjective):
There are high mountains in the Caucasus.
The red pencil is of high quality.
Mary has an interesting book to read.
б) существительное в присвійному падеже:
Peter's mother is an actress.
The teacher's instructions are always useful.
I corrected the student's mistakes.
в) существительное в общем падеже:
The town library is large.
This brigade usually built brick houses.
The student hostel is comfortable.
г) притяжательное местоимение (the Possessive Pronoun):
His success at the Olympic games is great.
Their lessons begin at nine a. m.
Her father is an actor.
г) числительное (the Numeral):
There are three newspapers on the table.
She is the first pupil of the class.
We arrived in New York on the tenth day of our travel.
д) причастия настоящего и прошедшего времени (the Present and the Past Participle):
Is there running water in this house?
The boy sitting in the garden is my brother.
The illustrated magazine is on sale now.
The books bought yesterday are very useful.
е) инфинитив (the Infinitive):
Many people have a great desire to travel in summer.
Here are the books to read during holiday days.
The exercises to be done for Monday are on page seventy-three.
есть) приложение (The Apposition):
He spoke with Professor Brown.
London, the capital of Great Britain, is situated on the river Thames.
1. Point out the subject. State what it is expressed by. Translate thesentences into Russian.
1. You must study well. 2. There are plenty of historical places in our town. 3. Thousands of workers live n the East End of London. 4. Through the window I saw a little garden. 5. As a rule, she spends her free time :n the park. 6. My daughter is glad to be taught English. 7. Everybody will be delighted to see you. 8. She is known to be a famous writer. 9. To teach pupils is a responsible task. 10. Swimming is my favourite kind of sport. 11. Nothing can be done in this situation. 12. “Five” is my favourite mark. 13. It's half past six.
2. Comment on the word order and explain the cases of inversion.
1. I have read this book with great pleasure. 2. She met me in the park on Friday. 3. I told the news to him. 4. Show the book to your brother. 5. I returned the magazine to the library last week. 6. There is your book. 7. Here he comes! 8. There is a small garden near my house. 9. Only then she understood everything. 10. In vain did we try to make her do it. 11. Never in my life have I seen such a beautiful flower. 12. She will work here with pleasure. 13. We went to the cinema with our teacher. 14. There exist different opinions on this question. 15.They lived in an old wooden house near a short deep river. 16.Yesterday Ireceived a long letter from him. 17. She bought a nice red dress some days ago. 18. I sent my mother a nice present for her birthday. 19. He ran quickly to the shop. 20. He was born on the fifteenth of May in 1995. 21. I'll come here at 8 o'clock tomorrow. 22. From thewindow came sounds of music. 23. On the left is our town museum.
3. State with what meaning the pronouns one, we, you, they are used in the function of the subject. Translate the sentences into Russian.
1. You can't do different kind of work at a time. 2. We often see other people's faults without seeing our own. 3. They say the weather will change soon. 4. We rather say “it's me", ” not “it's I.” 5. One should be careful when swimming in an unknown river.
4. Insert it or there. Comment on their use. Translate into Russian.
1. Look! ... is a nest over the window! I know ... is a swallow's nest. ... came in spring and built a nest here. Now ... are some little swallows in it.... is interesting to watch them.... is the swallow that I like most of all thebirds. 2. ... is late. ... is 12 o'clock at night. ... is very bad togo to bed so late. I can never go to bed in time: ... is so much work to do. ... was only after I had done all my work that I could have a good rest yesterday. 3. ... is the middle of July. ... is hot. ... is 30 degrees above zero. ... is no wind. ... are no waves on the sea. ... is so pleasant to bask in the sun. ... are many people on the beach. ... is on such hot days that I like to bathe most of all.
5. State the nature of it. Translate the sentences into Russian.
1. The bell rang. It was lean, pale Eddie Warren in a state of acute distress. (Mansfield).
2. It was impossible to see the hen-house from the window of her bedroom... (Bates).
3. The telephone rang. I went to answer. It was Joe Bjornson. (Scheurweighs).
4. How far is it from your house to the river?
5. “Who is there?”-“It's only me and my friends.” (Scheurweighs).
6. It was dark in the hall. (Mansfield).
7. ... it was the steppe that казалось unreal. (Lessing).
8. It was the dignity checked that my tongue. (Lessing).
9. “You heard the news?” “Yes.”-“It's a terrible thing,” he said, “terrible.” (Greene).
10. It was now almost four-thirty in the afternoon. (Dreiser).
11. I took a good room. It was very big and light and looked out on the lake. (Hemingway).
6. Point out the predicate and say to what type it belongs.
1. Ann writes good compositions. 2. The man is old. 3. She has done the work. 4. Petro went to the theatre yesterday. 5. The pencil is broken. 6. The letter is from my sister. 7. I must do it now. 8. He will be able to go with us. 9. The weather got worse. 10. She kept silent. 1 l.Our aim is mastering English. 12. I feel happy. 13. He fell ill. 14. She is tired. 15. The woman looks sad. 16. My mother works at school. 17. I have been reading this book for a week already. 18. I lost my tongue and stood speechless. 19. The weather continued fine. 20. You may take my book. 21. She stopped reading. 22. When are you to make your report? 23. It grew dark. 24. He turned pale. 25. We used to get up very early in summer. 26. You can come here in a week. 27. Thelesson is over. 28. The brothers were ten. 29. The student is reading a text. 30. The leaves are falling off the trees. 31. To learn is to know.
7. State the kind of the predicate.
1. That night he slept like a top... (Galsworthy).
2. The little boy was silent. (Galsworthy).
3. “... I went on holding his cold hands.” (Du Maurier).
4. “It seems so odd to us ...” (Du Maurier).
5. “... I couldn't help walking with my shoulders bent.” (Greene).
6. The two guards looked at me ... (Greene).
7. You weren't allowed to retreat. (Aldington).
8. The signal officer made a face. (Aldington).
9. We don't have the same trouble ... when a Frenchman is killed. (Greene).
10. Well, d'you feel any better now? (Priestley).
11. Harry was enjoying his dinner. (Mansfield).
12. She became bitter and unapproachable. (Thorne).
13. Her marriage was more or less fixed for the twenty-eighth of the month. They were to sail for India on September the fifth. (Lawrence).
14. To walk in this way behind him казалось, to Annette already asufficient marvel. (Murdoch).
15. The grey house had ceased to be a home for family life. (Buck).
16. Kit was told to do nothing in particular. (Lindsay).
17. There were a number of people out this afternoon. And theband sounded louder and gayer. (Mansfield).
18. These days are finished. They are blotted out. I must begin living all over again. (Du Maurier).
19. He was a country doctor. He died young. (Sanborn).
20. But Abramovici remained quiet. (Heym).
21. On the first of October he was able to tell her to refurnish the house. (Cronin).
8. Point out the link-verb of the compound nominal predicate. Translate the sentences into Russian.
1. He looked pale and tired. (Du Maurier). 2. “He smokes one hundred and fifty pipes every day.”-“That sounds a lot.” (Greene). 3. Her mind was really getting muddled. (O'Casey). 4. The blanched skin was slowly turning pink. (Cronin). 5. He looked puzzled and suspicious. (Greene). 6. It was growing twilight. (Bates). 7. That peaceful sky hung arched over a desperate death-struggle of the nations. (Aldington). 8. ... Her lips quivered as she sat silent. (O'Casey). 9.Davidson looked scared, and his yellow drawn face ... went paler. (Aldington). 10. “Good God, sir, ” exclaimed the officer, “is it possible?” (Stevenson). 11. “You're the kind of lad for us,” cried the sergeant, holding joe's hand in his, in the excess of his admiration. (Dreiser).
9. Point out the predicative and state what it is expressed by. Translate the sentences into Russian.
1. The morning was warm. 2. He is against it. 3. She is a student, 4. They казалось tired. 5. The little child looks ill. 5. He became a doctor. 6. It's me. 7. It's getting cold. 8. My favourite occupation is travelling. 9. She turned red. 10. Your duty is to help your friend immediately. 11. They are engineers. 12. This pen is mine. 13. The vase is broken. 14. My favourite number is seven. 15. The w'eather became better.
10. Point out the subject and the predicate.
1. There is a telephone in that room. 2. She began to translate thearticle. 3. He wants to be the best pupil at his school. 4. This poem is worth learning by heart. 5. To learn English is very useful. 6. My little brother doesn't study. 7. The old woman is a pensioner. 8. There lived an old doctor in the village. 9. The telegram has been sent off. 10.There hasn't been any rain for a week. 11. She looks happy. 12. It is getting cold. 13. She may return in an hour. 14. I have to prepare the report for tomorrow. 15. It is winter. 16. Her greatest desire was toenter this Institute. 17. My father works at a plant. 18. I have finished the work. 19. The experiment was finished in time. 20. Her address was forgotten by me at once.
11. Comment on the kind of the object and say what it is expressed by.
1. She received a letter from him yesterday. 2. We have bought a vase for her. 3.The teacher gave the pupil a book. 4. She showed me themagazine. 5. The children played ball. 6. He is fond of swimming. 7. Hive with my parents. 8. She asked me to do it. 9. How many pages have you read? I've read ten. 10. We spoke about our teachers. 11. She followed me. 12. I want you to tell me the truth. 13. They painted thedoor brown, 14. She insisted on my leaving. 15. The hall was full of children.
12. Place the direct object before the indirect object to make the latter more prominent. Use the preposition to or for.
Model: Give me this book. - Give the book to me.
1. Show the children this wonderful picture-book. 2. Tell somebody else this funny story. 3. Bring us your family photos. 4. Pass me the salt. 5. Show the teacher your copy-book. 6. Write her grandmother a letter. 7. Send your uncle a telegram.
13. Point out the object; define the kind of the object.
1. Read it! Read it to everybody! She used to read to me while I was working. 2. Write this word! Write a few words to them! Write to him, he will be so glad to hear from you. 3. Sing a song! She sang some old Irish songs to the grateful listeners. Won't you sing to us?
14. Point out the complex object (direct or prepositional indirect). State what components the complex object consists of. Translate the sentences into Russian.
1. The people watched the plane landing. 2. Have you heard this girl sing? 3. I want you to do it for me. 4. The teacher ordered the children to keep quiet. 5. We know him to be a good sportsman. 6. I hate you to talk about this. 7. She expected him to ask that question. 8. I saw her crossing the street. 9. He did not want anybody to know.
15. Point out the complex object and say by what it is expressed. Translate the sentences into Russian.
1. Sammy watched Mr. Cheviot slowly take the receiver from the girl. (Priestley).
2. The Consul felt his legs give way. (Cronin).
3. He could see the man and Great Beaver talking together. (London).
4. Each woman thought herself and triumphant the other altogether vanquished. (Buck).
5. ...You know that she took offence at the poor dear boy's ever being born ... (Dickens).
6. I shan't even wait for it to be emptied. (Mansfield).
7. Sun didn't mind people not noticing him much ... (Mansfield).
16. Complete the sentences giving the second element of the complex object.
Model: I must have my hair ... I must have my hair cut.
1. Nobody expected you ... 2. We shall get your luggage ... 3. She waited for us ... 4. The mother wanted her daughter ... 5. Isuppose it ... 6. She considered herself... 7. We were surprised at your ... 8. We can't rely on her ... 9. The child watched the birds ...
17. Point out the attribute and say what it is expressed by.
1. I received a long letter from my pen-friend last week. 2. She bought a nice straw hat. 3. The rising sun was bright and warm. 4. I am going to tell you something interesting. 5. It was a cold rainy day. 6. Some books and newspapers were laying on the table. 7. This is his discovery. 8. I've done only the first part of the task. 9. This article is worth reading. 10. She expressed a desire to come to us again. 11.1 have no intention of going there. 12. Here is the village club. 13.1 followed my aunt's advice. 14, The workshop of our school is very large. 15. Ships built for the transportation of oil are called tankers. 16. I have received a letter of great importance. 17. He is a conscious student. 18. She was the first to speak. 19. The students who study at Oxford pay much money for tuition.
18. Ask questions on the attributes in bold type. (The interrogative words for use: what, which, whose, what kind of what sort of how much, how many).
Model: This is my brother's tennis racket. Whose tennis racket is this?
1. This is a book on architecture. 2. Warm winds blow from the South. 3. Bus number 5 will take you as far as the Opera House. 4. To play tennis we must have four balls. 5. Give me the magazine on the right. 6. She lives in that house at the corner of the street. 7. She lives in a new house of modern construction. 8. There are fifteen apple-trees in our garden. 9. You mustn't lift heavy things. 10. I like sweet biscuits. 11. Her brother is a most amusing companion. 12. She had atiny brown španiel puppy in her arms. 13. An old orchard of apple-trees stretched down to a stream. 14. I'll go by the 3.30 train.
19. Make up sentences with detached attributes using the given words.
Model: - dismal cave, dark and cold.
We found ourselves in a dismal cave, dark and cold.
1. - big man, broad-shouldered and heavy.
2. - nice young girl, very graceful and elegantly dressed.
3. - unknown lane, long and narrow.
4. - nice room, light and clean.
5. - small kitchen, cosy and tidy.
6. - modern building, built of glass and concrete.
20. Point out the attribute and say by what it is expressed.
1. It was such a cruel thing to have happened to that gentle, helpless creature. (Prichard).
2. What do you say to a stroll through the garden, Mr. Cockane? (Shaw).
3. The two men faced each other silently. (Douglas).
4. It was an easy go-as-you-please existence. (Prichard).
5. I am not in the habit of reading other people's letters. (Shaw).
6. A middle-aged man carrying a sheaf of cards walked into the room. (Braine).
7. It was just one little sheet of glass between her and the great wet world outside. (Mansfield).
8. That night in the surgery there were three patients, two of whom paid him the three and six penny fee... He had, in his first day's practice, earned the sum of ten and six. (Cronin).
9. “I think i've come across the same idea in a little French review quite unknown in England.” (Mansfield).
10. She was a well-made woman of about fifty... She had the look of a woman well-fed, well-taken - care-of... (Cronin).
11. They must have a roof to cover them, a house to shelter them ...(Cronin).
12. ... he realised suddenly ... that it wasn't fear of being caught that worried Davy but fear of being left alone. (Aldridge).
13. “Perhaps one day you will have a reason for writing about it.” (Greene).
14. Horn made him a sign to come on to the verandah. (Maugham).
15. And Bertha smiled with that little air of proprietorship that she always assumed while her women friends were new and mysterious. (Mansfield).
21. Point out the close and loose apposition.
1. There are plenty of dogs in the town of Oxford. (Jerome K. Jerome).
2. You look quite all right, Uncle Soames. (Galsworthy).
3. James, a slow and thorough eater, stopped the process of mastification. (Galsworthy).
4. They, the professors, were right in their literary judgement ... (London).
5. He felt lost, alone there in the room with that spirit of pale awoman. (London).
6. But now he had seen that world, possible and real with a flower of a woman ... (London).
7. One of our number, a round-faced, curly-которую ты будешь иметь зовут little man of about forty, glared at him aggressively. (Braddon).
22. Point out and state the kind of the adverbial modifier. Say what the adverbial modifier is expressed by.
1. She has just arrived to Kyiv. 2. At 7.30 every morning the alarm-clock rings and wakes me up. 3. He visited England to see the famous Big Ben. 4. What nasty weather we are having today! 5. She couldn't come because of the rain. 6. The little child grew pale with pain. 7. It's too cold to go for a walk. 8. I'll come to you after classes. 9. I have come to talk to you. 10. “It is getting cold,” said she closing the window. 11.On coming home I learned that somebody had called me up twice. 12. I'll ring you up when I come home. 13. It happened yesterday. 14.Ioften visit my old granny. 15. She spent her vacation in the Crimea. 16. While reading the text I found some unknown words. 17. She sat пожаротушения набережной window looking through a newspaper. 18. This box is very heavy. 19. I called on her to discuss this matter. 20. She spoke slowly. 21.1 met her by chance at the cinema a few days ago. 22. She cleaned the flat with great care.
23. Ask questions on the adverbial modifiers in bold type.
1. I see my friend thrice a week. 2. After a good rest I can go miles. 3. The group of tourists was tired having covered 40 miles that rainy day. 4. But for your advice I shouldn't have acted rightly. 5.1 opened the window to air the room. 6. We have been living here since 1997. 7. The sailor ran to the front of the boat. 8. I go to the town library from time to time. 9. Though frightened the girl didn't cry. 10. She opened the door for him to pass. 11. Though very busy they made up their minds to go to the circus by all means.
24. Insert the adverbial modifier in the appropriate place. (Give more than one variant if possible).
1. It rains in autumn (usually).
2. Ring me up (before leaving the town).
3. I shall sleep much and take long walks (instead of taking medicine).
4. It will be raining hard (soon).
5. The climate has been damp (always, in these parts).
6. One must have a good rest (after training).
7. We shall go on an excursion (weather permitting).
8. We returned to the camp (the setting sun behind the mountains).
9. There is no deep river, except the Tamar (on the southern coast of England).
10. We sat down to table and had a hearty meal (on returning home).
25. Make up sentences of your own using the following word combinations as adverbial modifiers.
1) of place or direction:
in front of the house, in the distance, at a distance, behind the house, at the corner of the street, at the bottom of ... , upstairs, downstairs, along the street, across the street;
2) of time or frequency:
from time to time, once (twice, thrice) a week, in a day or two from that day on, not until it was done, when a boy, from time immemorial, since then, on that unforgettable day, with the flush of dawn, when questioned;
3) of manner or attending circumstances:
on purpose, by chance, without a glance, in a whisper, side by side, as if to stop him, never to come back, with tears streaming down her cheeks, full of indignation;
4) of condition:
if possible (necessary, obligatory), if (если) discovered (asked, required, etc.), weather permitting, but for (one's help, advice, kindness, etc.);
5) of degree or measure:
particularly, deeply, fairly well, over head and ears, rather (well, badly, etc.), greatly (astonished, surprised, disappointed, etc.);
6) of cause:
because of one's carelessness, not being able to ..., there being no time left, it being late, quite worn out, because of the rain;
7) of purpose:
in order to ..., for you to (have it, see it, etc.), lest he should forget it;
8) of concession:
difficult as it was, in spite of (the nasty weather, the difficulties, etc.), although quite tired (much weaker, etc.), notwithstanding his success (promise, desire, fear, etc.);
9) of comparison:
like (all young people, all her friends, a child, etc.), as if asleep (in doubt, etc.)
26. Point out and state the kind of the adverbial modifier. Say by what the adverbial modifier is expressed.
1. I'm here, i'm working, morning, noon and night. (Berkeley).
2. All at once the sheep-dog leapt to its feet. (Bates).
3. Sophie pulled out the dress without saying anything. (Huxley).
4. They went down the stairs side by side. (Maugham).
5. Sometimes it is a joy in the very heart of hell to tell the truth. (Chesterton).
6. Ben was too busy to hear him now ... (Aldridge).
7. There was a road to Cairo which went west across the desert. (Aldridge).
8. She paused, her eyes never leaving my face. (Du Maurier).
9. The doctor gazed at Poirot in astonishment. (A. Christie).
10. Gashford required no second invitation, and entered with agracious air .(Dickens).
11. At the monk's other hand, Montigny and Thevenin Pensete played a game of chance. (Stevenson).
12. While Harry mechanically adopted these suggestions, thegardener, getting upon his knees, hastily drew together the scattered jewels and returned them to the bandbox. (Stevenson).
13. She and her grandfather had driven into town to hear the returned South African missionary. (S.K.Hocking).
14. Then in a moment she looked up, as though seeing him for the first time. (Cronin).
15. Galileo slowly nodded his head. (Douglas).
27. Analyse the following sentences according to the model.
Model: Clarice was waiting for me in my bedroom. (Du Maurier).
It is a simple extended sentence.
“Clarice” is the subject expressed by a proper noun;
“was waiting” is a simple verbal predicate expressed by the verb “to wait” in the Past Continuous Tense, singular;
“for me” is a prepositional indirect object expressed by a personal pronoun, first person, singular, in the objective case, preceded by the preposition “for”;
“in my bedroom is an adverbial modifier of place expressed by a prepositional phrase.
1. Mary shook off her mantle with a shrug of her shoulders. (Cronin).
2. I opened the knife, and cut a length of twine, and came back into the room again. (Du Maurier).
3. Most of the western rivers flow down a steep slope near the sea and are short and rapid. (World Wide Reader).
4. The contrast between the south-east and the north-west of Britain depends on a fundamental distinction in rock structure.
5. His heart felt swollen in his chest. (Stone).
6. The girl (Aileen) was really beautiful and much above the average intelligence and force. (Dreiser).
7. The idleness made him cranky. (Stone).
8. Suddenly all the differences between life and death became apparent. (Stone). 8. Miss Fulton laid her moonbeam fingers on his cheeks and smiled her sleepy smile. (Mansfield).
9. Sally found it difficult to visit anybody herself. (Prichard).
10. Next morning brought no satisfaction to the locksmith's thoughts,... (Dickens).
11. He laughed rather bitterly. (A .Christie).
12. It was a week later. (A. Christie).
13. Up to that moment the banker had given no sign of life,... (Stevenson).
14. The footman came at the summons, veiy white and nervous. (Stevenson).
15. The new-comer was a large, coarse and very sordid personage, in gardening clothes, and with a watering - pot in his left hand. (Stevenson).
16. She made him no answer. (Dickens).