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Английский язык. Универсальное издание - подготовка к ЗНО и ДПА





Главные члены предложения (THE PRINCIPAL PARTS OF THE SENTENCE)


Подлежащее (The Subject)


Подлежащее отвечает на вопросы кто? who?, что? what?.

Подлежащим может быть:

а) существительное (the Noun):

Faraday was one of the greatest scientists of his time.

This house was built last year.

Many animals and birds live in our forests.

б) местоимение (the Pronoun):

He plays chess every afternoon.

They usually go home by bus.

It snows here very often.

в) числительное (the Numeral):

С is a small number,

A million is a large sum of money.

30 can be divided by six.

г) инфинитив (the Infinitive):

To smoke is bad for the health.

To swim in the sea water is pleasant and useful for one's health.

To see is to believe.

ґ) ґерундій (the Gerund):

Skating is healthy and pleasant.

Writing makes a man exact in expressing his thoughts.

Playing the piano is that what she likes best.

Learning rules without examples is useless.


Сказуемое (The Predicate)


В английском языке есть три типа сказуемого:

а) простой глагольный (the Simple Verbal Predicate):

Это - сказуемое, выраженное личной формой глагола в любой временной форме, состоянии, способе.

The guests arrived late at night.

They will be waiting for us in the Central Park.

Mary has bought three books and will give them to the children as presents.

They are having classes now.

б) составлен именной (the Compound Nominal Predicate):

Это - сказуемое, выраженное глаголом-связкой и именной частью (предикативом). Глаголы-связки: to be, to remain, to prove, to continue, to keep, to appear, to look, to seem, to become, to get, to leave, to run, to go, to come, to turn, to grow, to make, etc.

В функции предикатива употребляются прилагательные, существительные, местоимения, числительные, наречия, безличные формы глагола.

The workers are tired after their hard work.

Ann will be a doctor.

These men are miners.

The trees are green.

The days are getting shorter now.

The weather grew местами.

He became quite a famous man.

в) составной глагольный (the Compound Verbal Predicate):

Это сказуемое может быть выражен:

- модальным глаголом в сочетании с інфінінтивом или глаголом с модальным значением в сочетании с інфінітивом или герундієм.

Vira can read English well.

You must do morning exercises every day.

The weather was getting worse and we had to stay at home.

I want to become an English teacher.

- глаголом, что значит начало, продолжение или окончание действия в сочетании с інфінітивом или Герундієм.

I began to learn English when I was eleven.

Jane finished reading the book yesterday.

The boys stopped smoking.

He continued laughing.