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Английский язык. Универсальное издание - подготовка к ЗНО и ДПА





Местоимение (THE PRONOUN)


1) В английском мовайменники делятся на:

1. Личные (personal) (I, you, she, he, it, we, they; me, you, her, him, it, us, them)

2. Притяжательные (possessive) (my, your, her, his, its, our, their; mine, yours, hers, his, its, ours, theirs)

3. Возвратные (reflexive) (myself, yourself, herself, himself, itself; ourselves, yourselves, themselves)

4. Взаимные (reciprocal) (each other, one another)

5. Указательные (demonstrative) (this, that; these, those)

6. Вопросительные (interrogative) (who (whom), whose, what, which)

7. Относительные (relative) (who (whom), whose, what, which, that)

8. Неозначені (indefinite) (some, any, somebody, anybody, someone, anyone, something, anything, one)

9. Атрибутивные (defining) (all, both, each, every, everybody, everyone, everything, either, another, other)

10. Соединительные (conjuctive) (who (whom), whose, what, which)

11. Количественные (quantitative) (many, much, a few, a little, few, little)

12. Отрицательные (negative) (no, none, neither, nobody, no one, nothing).


2) Личные, притяжательные и возвратные местоимения в английском языке изменяются по лицам и числам:




Личные местоимения

Притяжательные местоимения

Возвратные местоимения


























































Личные местоимения I, you, he, she, it, we, you, they употребляются вреченні в роли подлежащего, а местоимения то, you, him, her, it, us, you, them - в роли приложения:

She met me at the station.

После притяжательных местоимений my, your, her и т.д употребляется существительное, а после форм mine, yours, hers т.д существительное не ставится никогда.

This is not your book, it's mine.

Возвратные местоимения употребляются с глаголом как приложение; уживаясь с личными местоимениями или существительными, они усиливают их значение:

She washed herself with warm water.

You did it yourself.


3) Неозначені местоимения some, any, no и производные от них употребляются в разных типах предложений.

Утвердительные предложения

some, something, somebody, someone

Общие вопросы

any, anything, anybody, anyone

Специальные вопросы

some, something, somebody, someone

Альтернативные вопросы

any, any, anybody, anyone

Отрицательные предложения

(not) any/no (not) anything/nothing, (not) anybody/


nobody, (not) anyone/no one


some, something, somebody, someone



There is some milk in the glass.

Is there any milk in the glass?

Where there is some milk?

Is there any milk in the glass or cup?

There is not any milk in the glass.

(There is no milk in the glass.)

Will you give me some sweets, please?


- Местоимение some перед числительным имеет значение “около", “примерно: There are some twenty pupils in the corridor.

Местоимение any (anything, anybody, anyone) в утвердительных предложениях имеет значение “всякий”, “любой": Any flower smells sweet.

- В английском языке в отрицательном предложении может употребляться только одно отрицание; поэтому, если в предложении стоит отрицательный местоимение, глагол употребляется в утвердительной форме: I saw nobody there.


4) Местоимения many и few употребляются со злічуваними существительными, a much и little - с незлічуваними:

I spent many days there.

She has much free time on Sunday.


Если местоимения few и little употребляются с артиклем а, они меняют свое значение.

There are few people in the street. рисo (не достаточно)

There is little time left.

There are a few leaves on the trees. несколько, немного (но достаточно)

I've got a little time.


5) Местоимение one выражает неозначену человека и употребляется как подлежащее в неозначено-личных предложениях.

One never knows what his answer may be. (Никогда не знаешь, какой ответ он даст.)

Если one в роли подлежащего употреблено с глаголами must, should, ought, can, may, то в русском языке таким словосочетанием соответствуют слова нужно, необходимо, можно:

One can find ... - Можно найти ...

One should take into consideration ... - Необходимо иметь в виду...

One употребляется вместо ранее упомянутого злічуваного существительного.

I lost ту pen, I must buy a new one.


Для замены злічуваного существительного во множественном числе употребляется форма ones: These shoes are too small, I need some bigger ones.


Местоимение one не употребляется после притяжательных местоимений или существительных в присвійній форме: Your answer is good, but ann's is better.

Ones не употребляется после these, those, other, others, которые также заменяют соответствующий существительное: These dresses are better than those.

Но: Which vase do you prefer: this one or that one?

One иногда употребляется после the first, the next, the last.

January is the first month of the year, and December is the last one.




1. Replace the words in bold type by the necessary personal pronouns.

1. Ann worked hard at history. 2. Father will ask Nick to bring some flowers from the garden. 3. The librarian gave the children interesting books. 4. My friend is going to visit Canada next year. 5.This text is too difficult for the pupils of the ninth form. 6.Thestudents will pass the exam tomorrow. 7. The girls cleaned the room yesterday.


2. Change the following sentences as in the given model and translate them into Russian.

Model I: This is my book. - This book is mine.

Это моя книга. - Эта книга моя.

Model II: This is my book. - And that one is his (hers).

These are my books. - And those ones are ours (theirs).

1. This is my purse. 2. This is your decision. 3. These are our flowers. 4. This is their writing-table. 5. This is my umbrella. 6. These are our tickets. 7. This is my hat. 8. These are our post-cards. 9. This is part of their work. 10. These are your seats. 11. This is my dictionary.


3. Translate the sentences into Russian.

1. He demands much of himself.

2. I saw myself in the unruffled water as if it were a mirror.

3. Modest people don't speak much of themselves.

4. She ought to be ashamed of herself.

5. You see yourself that you are wrong.

6. He tried to justify himself, but nobody believed him.

7. The tourists found themselves in a large dark cave.

8. We have often done the same thing ourselves.

9. Can he do it by himself or does he need help?

10. I've done the work myself.


4. Complete the following sentences using either each other или one another.

Model. The two friends looked at each other.

All the friends assembled looked at one another.


1. All of us put down

...telephone numbers.

2. Without saying a word, my friend and I nodded to


3. When my fellow student and I met again we recognized

...at once.

4. The two friends exchanged


5. The sorrow-stricken brother and sister didn't look into



5. Put questions to the words in bold type.

1. He showed me his new suit.

2. We sent them a long letter.

3. She gave us her dictionary.

4. Her composition was the best.

5. She has made many bad mistakes in her exercise.

6. The third text in the book is the most difficult.

7. These are my sister's toys.


6. Insert the pronouns who, whom, whose, what, which:

1. ... of you will do it? 2. ... will help me? 3. ... pupils of these is the best? 4. Here are the compositions. ... is yours? 5. ... books are these? They are mine. 6. ... piece of cake will you have? 7. ... doesn't understand the rule? 8. ... way did she go? 9. ... do you know about her? 10. ... is he? He is a teacher. 11. ... English books have you read this month? 12. ... way is to the theatre? 13. ... knows his address? 14.... would you like to drink? 15. ... teaches you English?


7. Insert the necessary relative pronouns.

1. The man ... has just come in is our best friend. 2. The woman ... you see in the corner of the room is waiting for the manager. 3. The girl ... I have spoken about will be here in an hour. 4. The dog ... is running along the street has evidently lost its master. 5. The album ... is lying on the shelf contains many nice sketches. 6. 1 shan't be able to attend these lectures, ... is a pity. 7. The book ... you are looking for is in thebox. 8. The cat ... is looking at me with devoted eyes is my pet-cat. 9.... has done it is unknown. 10. I don't know ... of them speaks French.


8. Insert indefinite pronouns some or any.

1. She asked me ... questions. 2. Have you got ... interesting magazines? 3. My friend asked me whether I had ... information about the accident. 4. If there are ... new newspapers there, bring ... for me. 5. She asked me for ... stamps, but I hadn't.... 6. Give me ... water, please. 7. There isn't ... butter in the refrigerator. 8. ... of the sugar was packed in bags. 9. Why didn't you buy ... tea? 10. Can I have ... milk? 11. I want ... matches. Have you got ...?


9. Insert much, many, little, few.

1. There were ... people in the yard. 2. How ... time does it take you to get to the Institute? 3. How ... times did you visit our museum? 4. Hurry up! There is ... time left. 5. I have not heard ... about this singer. 6. She is a person of... words. 7. It's raining. There are ... people in the street.


10. Complete the sentences as in the model.

Model: Which of the dresses do you want to buy?

The one with a pleated skirt.

Which is my cup here? The one ...

Which of these hats do you like most of all? The one ...

Which seat do you want to take? The one ...

Which magazine shall I give you? The one ...

Which window is that of your room? The one ...


11. Insert no or none.

1. I have ... ticket. 2. ... newspapers wrote about this event. 3.There is a telephone in her flat, but there is ... in mine. 4. I bought a lot of interesting books in Kyiv, but my friend bought ... 5. She had ... mistakes in the test. 6. Tomorrow i'll have much free time, but today I have ...


12. Translate the sentences.

1. Both brothers live in Canada. 2. She gave me two interesting books yesterday; I have read both. 3. You are both right. 4. They have both gone to the Crimea. 5. We must both go there. 6. She invited us both.


13. Insert either or neither.

1. You may go by ... road. 2. Here are two dictionaries. You may take ... of them. 3. There are a lot of trees on ... banks of the river. 4. ...of the statements is true. 5. ... my friend nor I liked this story. 6.... of the examples is correct. 7. We accepted ... offer.


14. Insert each or every.

1. There are flowers and trees on ... side of the street. 2. ... of us received a nice present. 3. I see my best friend ... day. 4. We have ... reason to believe her. 5. We go to the Black sea ... year. 6. ... student at our Institute goes in for sport. 7. There were four pupils in the room, and I gave a new book to ... of them.


15. Insert other or another.

1. The child was sitting in one arm-chair. I was sitting in ... 2. Give me ... pen. 3. They have ... intentions.

4. Where are the ... books that Igave you? 5. The library is on the ... side of the street. 6. She will stay here ... three days. 7. There is only one glove in the box. Where is the ...?


16. Compete the sentences as in the model.

Model: - Read my letter...

Read my letter and that of my sister.

- Look through these magazines...

Look through these magazines and those received before.

1. I couldn't answer your question... 2. Copy the figures written in this list... 3. Which do you want to have: a bag made of cloth...? 4. The vase on the shelf is more beautiful than... 5. She reread his telegram... 6. Compare the pictures in this book... 7. Show me the hat on the upper shelf... 8. Give me the book in the blue cover... 9. The medicine given me by your doctor has помог положить me much better than... 10. Have a look at my postcards...


17. Point out the pronouns in the following sentences and define the class each belongs to.

1. What are you talking about? (Snow)

2. What was it in this girl that reminded him of that one with whom he had lived but two years, and mourned fifteen? (Galsworthy)

3. I can only say what I think. (Hemingway)

4. None of us except Coliingwood knew what the Prime Minister thought of Roger or his policy. (Snow)

5. Elizabeth and George talked and found each other delightful. (Aldigton)

6. Husbands and wives never listen when they talk to each other, only when the other is talking to somebody else. (Fowler)

7. Let me tell you something. (Priestley)

8. We said good-bye to one another and arranged to meet in the autumn. (Maugham)

9. I have made myself perfectly pleasant here. (Shaw)

10. This is where we wash ourselves, Eliza, and where I am going to wash you. (Shaw)

11. Who could tell what his son's circumstances really were? (Galsworthy)

12. Would she go with them or stay here and write to William? Which, which should it be? (Mansfield)

13. You see, Hushabye, you are what women consider a good-looking man. (Shaw)

14. You are somebody now, and don't let anybody forget it. (Priestley)

15. She rises with an air of one who waits and is almost at the end of her patience. (Shaw)